The etiology of many neurological disease implicated the loss in the noradrenergic nervous system neurons, like in Alzheimer's disease , Parkinson's disease (PD), Epilepsy etc. These diseases are also the leading cause of death and have no fruitful treatment. Oxidative tissues, including muscle, also take up ketone bodies via monocarboxylate transporters, which leads to their subsequent oxidation in the mitochondria and gives energy.
Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
The loss in the noradrenergic nervous system neurons in these diseases due to mitochondrial dysfunction relates to the diminished energy production and diminished GLUT 3, a principal neural glucose transporter in the Alzheimers Disease brain, but the transport and metabolism of ketone bodies remains active in these brain which can be helpful in the treatment of Alzheimers Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment .
Similarly, in Parkinson’s disease the impairment of mitochondrial function in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) plays an important contributory role in its pathogenesis. These finding suggests that ketone bodies have the potential of preventing, or possibly treating, both Alzheimers Disease and Parkinson’s disease.
Epilepsy and Seizures
The ketone bodies or ketone diet treatment in epilepsy mimic’s the metabolic effects of fasting as the anticonvulsant effect of fasting which has been known for centuries.
Thus, in these diseases there is the need of ketogenic source, as particularly the brain cells which normally uses glucose can readily utilize the ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to maintain its normal function. Ketone bodies are also shown to be protective against oxidative stress in neocortical neurons.